A symptom, not a solution
August 20 2009
In a human experiment that took place 11 years ago at the nuclear reactor in Dimona, employees were coerced into drinking a mixture containing a concentration containing at least seven times more uranium than the allowable quantity in drinking water.
The experiment, as Yossi Melman reported in Haaretz, contravened the Declaration of Helsinki, and may have caused real damage to the health of the participants. When the report came out, the Atomic Energy Commission quickly asked the Committee for Nuclear Safety to appoint a special committee to investigate the experiment.
It is hard not to be amazed at the number of committees that are supposed to oversee the safety of operations at nuclear centers in Israel, including secret Knesset sub-committees, the state comptroller and internal auditors working at all those secret centers.
The system-wide failures in oversight and supervision of the experiment in question is therefore astonishing. It may be assumed that if the report had not come out in Haaretz, responsibility for this experiment would not have come under review.
The nature of these human experiments carried out by government entities like the Negev Nuclear Research Center in Dimona, the Israel Institute for Biological Research, or the Israel Defense Forces enjoys secrecy under the pretext of security considerations. The public has learned to acquiesce to these experiments, on the unfounded assumption that they are necessary to strengthen the state’s ability to protect its citizens.
The systems of oversight for these experiments were put in place to reassure the public, and especially those who take part in the experiments, that they are protected by watchful, professional authorities that act as a wall against any breach of law or protocol, in order to prevent improper experimentation.
However, it turns out that there are cracks, at the very least, in this protective wall. That is the case with the uranium-drinking experiment, the dives in the Kishon River, the anthrax experiments, the nerve gas at the Institute for Biological Research and apparently other cases that are still waiting to be aired, or those that “for security reasons” will never be publicized.
These cases require the experiments’ supervisors to reexamine the efficacy of their implementation, and use their authority to set clearer and more transparent procedures that do not permit looking the other way or circumvention. A special investigative committee is part of the symptom, not the solution.
Israel: Ex-staffer at Dimona nuclear reactor says made to drink uranium
Report by Yossi Melman, There is also a video at the site . The video is extremely informative. Secret nuclear and biological weapons programs in Israel
I also found this in my wanderings
Dimona’s Buried Nuclear Waste Spreads Cancer and Sterility in Southern Hebron and Negev
GAZA, July 6, 2004 (IPC + Agencies) – – Nearly 70 cancer cases and the sterile rate soared to 62% among males and females in the villages south of Hebron was mainly caused by the nuclear waste buried by Israel in Hebron’s mountains.
Many physicians and officials south of Hebron City, adjacent to the Negev Desert, warned of the growing number of people afflicted with cancer and attributed the cause to the nuclear radioactive wind the region.
The Palestinian villages located south of Hebron’s mountains witnessed a growing number of cancer cases and unprecedented mutation rates as most of the specialists said that it is likely due to environmental pollution.
The professor (Y.A) of physics and a specialist of atomic science said that the air in southern Hebron is contaminated by the nuclear radioactive leakage as the area is very close to the Israeli Dimona reactor and to the nuclear waste dumps in the area.
There are no cement blocks around the reactor operating to lower the hazardous impacts of such high radioactivity.
The professor recited the case of his mother who died of visceral cancer, and after a check up, the cause was mainly due the high rates of radioactive elements.
The radioactivity has a tremendous power that could penetrates to the genes of the human, affecting the chromosome that are inherited generation after generation.
Dr. Mahmoud Sa’ada, the co-founder of the Palestinian Medical Relief, was quoted by the Al Nakab daily as saying, “I am a general physician who has been working for 30 years in Al Thaheryia adjacent to Hebron and I could ascertain that during the last years most of the cancer cases has no other diagnosis but nuclear radioactivity.”
He added, “now there are 70 cancer cases in Al Thaheryia admitted to Beit Jala hospital. Recently, a baby was born with red colored half face, and after examining each case it’s hardly to attribute the case to inherited deformations.”
Meanwhile, the rate of sterility has been notably increased to 62% in the villages south of Hebron due to the radioactivity.
Israel has always had a policy of nuclear ambiguity, saying only that it will not be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons to the region.
Late of last June, the Israeli cabinet approved to distribute iodine-based tablets to people living near the Israeli nuclear reactors to give them some protection in case of radioactive leakage.
The pills were to be given to people living near the Dimona reactor, in the southern Negev Desert and those close to the Nahal Sorek nuclear plant, southwest of Jerusalem, officials said on condition of anonymity.
Israel has had nuclear technology for decades but refused to comment on reports of obtaining nuclear weapons.
In 1986, former Dimona technician Mordechai Vanunu provided photographs and descriptions of the reactor to The Sunday Times magazine in London. Based on Vanunu’s material, experts said at the time that Israel has the world’s sixth-largest stockpile of nuclear weapons.
The Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, is due to arrive in Israel on Tuesday to discuss a nuclear-free Middle East but the Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon said earlier today that Israel has no intentions of deviating from its present nuclear policy.
Sharon spoke to the Israeli Army radio hours before the visit of IAEA director, where he said that Israel’s ‘nondisclosure’ policy would be maintained and that Israel has all the weapons it needs to protect itself.
International Press Center (IPC)
September 18, 2003
“The Israeli nuclear reactor of Dimona is vulnerable to meltdown, like the Russian reactor of Chernobyl two decades ago, which caused a humanitarian and ecological catastrophe. If Dimona melts down, it would affect an area 500 aerial kilometers in radius, reaching Cyprus and the entire neighboring region”, warned Dr. Yousef Abu Safiya, Head of the Palestinian Environment Quality Authority.
A recent study conducted by the Jordanian authorities after a request from the Palestinian Environment Quality Authority revealed that the Israelis are aware of the possibility of a meltdown in Dimona reactor, which in turn would affect the whole region, mainly the Jordanian southern city of Tafila.
The study also showed that radioactive substances are leaking from the Dimona reactor in a way that has increased rates of cancer diseases among nearby populations, particularly those of Tafila City.
What make these assumptions largely based on solid ground are the latest satellite images of the Dimona reactor, which showed that its walls have cracks, which cut its assumed age into half.
With thorough investigation into Dimona Israel’s nuclear plant, one can observe the following facts:
The location of Dimona’s reactor in the Negev desert is a delicate one, situated between Egypt, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority’s territories. The reactor was built in 1963, as part of a deal with France, who pledged to build the reactor in exchange for helping it and the United Kingdom in attacking Egypt in what was known as the 1956-tripartite. As for funding the reactor’s driving material, the United States took care of that, in addition to giving assistance with moving quantities of enriched Uranium to Israel.
The area on which the Dimona reactor is built on includes nine buildings, including the reactor building itself. Each building is tasked with producing a certain type of materials used to produce weapons of mass destruction, such as Plutonium, Lithium and Beryllium, used to manufacture nuclear bombs, in addition to producing radioactive Uranium and Triennium.
The Dimona reactor is considered to be the most mysterious secrets of the “nuclear world”, as Israel categorically refused, since its establishment in 1948 and after building the reactor, any routine inspection that other reactors around the world goes through, which “forcibly” open their reactors’ doors in fear of the American waving of the “club” of international resolutions.
No Inspection Beyond this Point!
Israel might be considered the only state that opposes to the inspection visits conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) all over the world, added to its rejection, until this very day, to sign the treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was signed by all Arab states.
In spite of the complete American support for the Israeli policy, the Americans have expressed their concern over the reactor, as news revealed an American attempt to send some of its nuclear-program officials to inspect Dimona reactor apart from those working in the IAEA, but Israel refused to allow them in, continuing the reactor’s legacy of being “visitation-proof”, as only Israelis are allowed in.
The Fifth Nuclear Power
Israel is considered the fifth nuclear power in the world. In addition to owning nuclear bombs that can be dropped from the air, its nuclear arsenal includes also nuclear warheads that can reach a distance of 1,500 kilometers, using the Israeli-made “Jericho” missiles.
Estimations show that Israel is in possession of 200 nuclear bombs, but Arab sources indicate that Israel own massive quantities of Uranium and Plutonium that enables it of producing an additional 100 bombs. Israel, in the meantime, seeks to increase the production efficiency of its reactor to about three times its current efficiency –from 28 to 100 megawatts.
According to recent reports, the Israeli nuclear reactor consumed 1,400 tons of Uranium last year, which indicates that its efficiency might have reached 150 megawatts.
In a study requested by the Palestinian Ministry of Environment Quality from the Jordanian authorities, it was revealed that the average manifestation of cancer in the Al Tafila governorate, south of Jordan, is higher than the other Jordanian governorates and surrounding Arab countries.
According to Dr. Abu Safiya, high cancer rates were recorded in all the southern Jordanian governorates, which confirmed the possible direction of nuclear dust that might be leaking from Dimona.
It was recently revealed that five Israeli families lost their sons who worked in Dimona reactor, and they filed charges in the Central Court in Tel Aviv against the Israeli government and the reactor’s administration, demanding compensations for the cancer that killed those workers due to radiation exposure.
According to the lawsuit, the prosecutors are relatives to five Israelis who worked for a long time in the nuclear “village”: Ze’eiv Schforn, born in 1931 and started working in Dimona in 1962 as the head of the supply crew. He was diagnosed with abdominal caner in 1966 and died in 1967. The second employee was Simon Dray, born in 1942 and worked in Dimona from 1966 until 1992 in the cleaning and decontamination unit. In 1996 he was diagnosed with pharyngeal cancer, and died in 1998. The third was Moshe Zegori, born in 1947, and worked in the reactor from 1965 until 1985, also in cleaning and decontamination. Before he left his job he found out that he had a malignant tumor in his head, and died in 1987. The fourth employee was Yousif Cohen, born in 1938, and worked in the reactor from 1970 until 1995, in maintenance. In 1997 he was diagnosed with several malignant tumors, and died in 1998.
The fifth employee is still suffering from cancer in his body, and is constantly under treatment. He worked in the reactor from 1969 until 1996, in maintenance and mechanical engineering.
The prosecutors of those victims are demanding the Israeli government to take responsibility for their deaths, due to the radiation exposure they suffered inside the reactor, which caused fatal malignant tumors. At the same time, they claim that the reactor’s administration didn’t take enough precaution measures and never warned the employees about the radiation hazard.
As reports indicate, the reactor has become old now, as its isolation walls have worn-out, which might cause the leakage of some radiation from the reactor, a thing that will lead to devastating health and ecological damages to the surrounding area.
According to the reports also, the reactor suffers from a dangerous crack caused by “neutron” radiation, which caused structural damage, as neutrons cause small gas bubbles inside the concrete support, making it fragile and susceptible to cracking.
The United Arab Emirates-based “Al Bayan” newspaper revealed recently that a serious debate was going on now about whether to stop working in the reactor before the catastrophe occurs or not. Additionally, a report made the by Israeli second TV channel mentioned that dozens of the reactor’s employees died of cancer, and that the reactor’s administration refuses to reveal the true number of casualties and fatalities.
The Dimona reactor wasn’t also immune to many working accidents that happened inside it, including the burning of hazardous and poisonous materials without providing the employees with suitable protective equipment, as many of them died because of that. As well, quantities of radioactive heavy water and nuclear waste leaked into a natural geographical hill extending along the reactor.
By continuing to maintain and operate Dimona reactor, Israel is committing a crime against humanity that will be added to the atrocities it perpetrated along its history. Since 1971, the reactor has never been provided with new cooling towers, even though the reactor’s efficiency has increased since then.
Dr. Abu Safiya pointed out that the most dangerous hazards of Dimona reactor is in the element producing Plutonium, which is used to make nuclear bombs. It’s one of the resultant elements of Uranium DK dissipation, and it can be used to synthesize enriched Uranium. It contains 20% out of the 0.05% Uranium, which is the highly radioactive substance that can be used in nuclear fission to manufacture either nuclear bombs or atomic fuel.
Abu Safiya warned that there’s a regional and long-term threat in Dimona reactor, represented in the presence of these nuclear bombs in the possession of a country such as Israel, a thing that raises questions about the inspection visits in Iraq and demanding Iran to be inspected too, as well as surprise inspections by the IAEA officials, while Israel publicly admit to possessing nuclear weapons.
In response to that, Shimon Peres, temporary chairman of the Israeli Labor party, claimed that there’s no comparison between Iraq and Israel, because, according to his claims, Iraq is ruled by a “dictator”, while Israel is a “democratic” state!
Right after this statement, Israel used poisonous gases in the city of Khan Younis, which caused dozens of Palestinian citizens to suffer from unconsciousness and severe illnesses, added to the spasms and hysterical conditions some of them suffered from after inhaling such internationally-banned gases.
Commenting on this incident, Dr. Abu Safiya said that “we ascertained that these are nerve gases, by analyzing a specimen of the Israeli bombs that didn’t burn completely. Through analysis, we revealed that it is composed of a group of nerve gases, due to which affected citizens suffered from spasms… this is an evidence against the state that Peres say it’s “democratic”, which used internationally-banned weapons against the Palestinian people.”
Noteworthy that exposure to small amounts of radiation on the long run might pose a serious threat to embryos and children, as well as causing cancer.
Israel Least Damaged
Dr. Abu Safiya demanded the IAEA “if they truly seek integrity” to run checks in order to discover the level of radiation in the region around the Dimona reactor.
“If we conduct, for example, a Contour Survey for all directions to see the level of radiation and who’s affected the most, we would find that Israel is the safest, having its population localities in the north far from the reactor. In addition, 95% of the wind direction in Palestine is northwestern, which is opposite to the Israeli population localities,” Dr. Abu Safiya said.
The simplest radiation leak resulting from Dimona reactor is that of the depleted Uranium, which is of catastrophic implications, as it is considered one of the heavy elements that ruin kidney, liver and respiratory system functions, leading to death. Only one atom of radioactive Uranium is enough to cause fatal cancer.
What About the Reactor’s Waste?
As for the waste products resulting from nuclear enrichment operations in Dimona reactor, Dr. Abu Safiya said that it’s buried in areas near the Palestinian Authority controlled territories, as well as Jordanian and Egyptian ones, especially in those areas where the flow of aquifer water and direction of the wind is not in Israel’s favor. A report by Israel’s second TV channel revealed that Dimona reactor’s waste products are buried in the areas east of the Al Bureij refugee camp and the town of Deir El Balah. Currently, the Palestinian Authority for Environment Quality is trying to get a permission to get water analysis equipment inside Gaza Strip to check these areas, but Israel is refusing.
“During the current Intifada, Israelis have buried nearly 50,000 tons of industrial chemical waste in Gaza Strip, only 30 meters deep, on an area of 5,000 square meters, as they stole the arable soil and moved it inside Israel and buried industrial waste in its place. This means that there’s 150,000 cubic meters of poisonous waste buried in Gaza, which is a catastrophe. Moreover, Israel isn’t affected by this waste because it was buried opposite to the flow of aquifer water,” Abu Safiya narrated.
In the West Bank, most of what’s buried is in the direction of the eastern hills, because it’s not included in the Israeli-controlled lands, unlike the western hills. Now, the eastern hills are polluted with chemical waster and pesticides.
Covering Up for Their Crimes
In Ramallah and Hebron, the Palestinian Authority had some basic equipment to measure radiation and environmental pollution. These equipment didn’t only check radiation, but pollution in general, such as soil, water, air and chemical pollution.
In this subject, Dr. Abu Safiya said that small devices were discovered inside helicopters, which is used to regulate the fan’s rotation, as well as providing the pilot with some technical data. These devices, if exposed to a person or played with by children, might lead to death or blood and gene mutations, as it contains radioactive materials. The Minister added that “after these devices wore out, the Israelis dump them in the Palestinian controlled lands, and we found three of these devices in Ramallah, one of which was in President Yasser Arafat’s office ‘Al Moqata’a’.” Such devices were also found during the Israeli invasion of Ramallah City on March 29, 2002, after the Authority received warnings of suspicious radioactive materials. When specialists from the Authority of Environment Quality reached the area and checked these parts, they found out that it contained glowing radioactive materials. The instruments those specialists had indicated that radiation levels exceeded the maximum limit. When the manufacturing company was contacted concerning that, the company replied that these parts were sold to the Israeli Air Force, and that it’s used in helicopters of the type CH53.
As soon as the Israeli occupying forces invaded Ramallah, the radiation checking equipment were destroyed, including those equipment used to check the radioactive parts. Additionally, IOF blew up the environment laboratory in Hebron and Ramallah, and destroyed all the equipment by throwing them from the fifth floor.
Lately, a cargo of Israeli waste was uncovered in the city of Hebron, which was composed of 80 barrels, in addition to 120 others in the town of Al Ezareya, Jerusalem district. Furthermore, IOF moved in a cargo of 2,500 tons of radioactive base coarse, and the radiation was further confirmed when it was checked. The shipment was coming from Italy, and when the Israeli Ministry of Environment discovered that the radiation level of the base coarse was four times higher than that internationally allowed, the shipment was illegitimately diverted to Gaza City.
Unveiling the Hidden
The Israeli government has recently decided to boycott the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) after the latter made a documentary film about the Israeli nuclear weapons. Sources in the Israeli Foreign Ministry explained that the film is Anti-Semitic –an accusation used by Israel to anyone or anything that they don’t like.
The BBC had broadcasted previews of the documentary film, in which the narrator’s voice is heard on the background of the Israeli reactor core in Dimona and the photo of Mordechai Vanunu, who revealed the Israeli nuclear secrets, and the narrator asks: Which country in the Middle East possesses nuclear weapons without declaring that? Which country in the Middle East possesses the chemical and biological ability without declaring that? Which country in the world throws away the revealer of its nuclear secrets in jail for 18 years?
As for the producer of the documentary, he interviewed several senior Israeli officials, including that chairman of the Israeli Labor party, Shimon Peres, who is also considered the godfather of the Israeli nuclear program, and the man who created the nuclear reactor in Dimona. The producer asked Peres why Iraq aren’t allowed to possess nuclear weapons while Israeli can, and the answer was clearly not satisfactory, and Peres found a claim to justify this question.
As for Mordechai Vanunu, who is staying in Israeli jails since 1986, as the Israeli court indicted him of espionage, treason and selling Israeli nuclear secrets to the “Sunday Times” British newspaper, and was sentenced to 18 years in prison. Now, he spent 16 years of it. Vanunu said that the Israeli authorities prevented him from meeting his British lawyers. “Now, Peres won’t be able to lie to [Ronald] Reagan about not owning nuclear weapons. Now everybody knows that,” Vanunu said.
Israel Protecting Itself
Israel surrounds itself with all means of protection. For example, every Israeli citizen has a pill of “stable Iodine”, and can be taken anytime, as it gives radiation protection.
It was revealed that Israeli provided all its citizens with such a pill, under the pretext of fearing an Iraqi nuclear strike, but the truth confirmed that they dispensed it because of fearing the meltdown of their own reactor, not only Dimona, but the other research facilities around Israel.
On the Palestinian level, the Authority of Environment Quality has tried to take some kind of protection, and sent a letter to the IAEA and Arab Ministers of Health, considering that the Palestinians are the weakest point and closest to the reactor, as Palestinian controlled lands are only 50 aerial kilometers away from Dimona reactor, but all these letters were rejected!
Among the examples that might be shown to indicate the amount of damage caused to the Palestinians due to any nuclear meltdown, the explosion that occurred in the pesticide factory in the city of Al Majdal (Ashkelon), where the stench of the pesticides reached Palestinian cities and towns due to thermal turnover and wind. Here, Dr. Abu Safiya pointed out to the danger that might happen in case an amount of radiation leaks from Dimona reactor, which will jeopardize the entire surrounding region and on a large geographical scale.
Negev Nuclear Research Center
Kirya le-Mechkar Garinii (KAMAG)
The Dimona heavy water reactor and an installation for processing irradiated fuel are used to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. Approximately 2,700 scientists, technicians, administrative staff, and other workers are employed at Dimona. Since the facility was constructed in the late 1950’s the surrounding land has been altered to sustain groves of palms and gardens positioned to obscure the facility from the road and air.
Begining around 1958 with French assistance, Israel constructed a natural uranium, heavy-water, research reactor at Dimona in the Negev Desert, about 8.5 miles from the town of the same name and some 25 miles from the Jordanian border. The Dimona facility was constructed in secret and is not under international inspection safeguards. The facility was first noticed by American intelligence when U-2 spyplanes overflew Dimona in 1958. It was not conclusively identified as a nuclear site until two years later. This reactor, nominally rated at 26 megawatts thermal, was put on line in early 1964. However according to Pierre Pean, French officials were surprised to discover that the cooling circuits designed to support three times the nominal power level, which permitted a scale-up to 70MWt without the addition of extra cooling circuits. If true, the power level of the reactor was reportedly 70MWt from the outset. Perhaps the power level has been increased to 150MWt some time after 1976, according to Barnaby.
An installation for processing irradiated fuel was completed with French assistance in the mid-1960s. Between 15 and 40-60 kilograms of fissionable plutonium can be processed annually. This facility probably has the capacity to produce plutonium for five to ten nuclear warheads a year.
In 1986, descriptions and photographs provided by the Israeli nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu were published in the London Sunday Times of the Dimona facility. This information supported the conclusion that Israel had a stockpile of 100 to 200 nuclear devices, a significantly larger nuclear capability than previously estimated.
Dimona consists of nine of these blocks called machons (in Hebrew facility or institute).
- Machon 1 – The large silver-domed reactor containment vessel, nearly 20 meters [about 60 feet] in diameter, is visible from a nearby highway. Uranium fuel rods remain in the reactor for a few months before being discharged for reprocessing. The heavy water used as a moderator is cooled by ordinary water through a heat exchanger, which reportedly results in steam sometimes visible from the outside. Reports of annual production of as much as 60-kg of plutonium suggest that the reactor power level has been upgraded to 120-150 megawatts, much higher than the original power of 26 megawatts. Tritium can be produced by irradiating lithium-6 targets in the reactor. The reactor is four decades old, and may be reaching the end of its practical lifetime.
- Machon 2 – Of the 2,700 employees at Dimona, it is said that only 150 are permitted access to Machon 2, which reportedly extends six floors underground. The chemical reprocessing plant removes plutonium produced in the reactor from the spent uranium rods. Before reprocessing begins, the rods are stored in water filled tanks for several weeks while the short-halflife radio-isotopes decay. The residual uranium is reprocessed to be used in new fuel rods. The facility also separates lithium-6 from natural lithium for use in thermonuclear weapons. According to Vanunu, the average weekly production is 1.2 kilograms of pure plutonium, enough for 4-12 nuclear weapons per year.
- Machon 3 – The facility includes processing of natural uranium for the reactor, and conversion of lithium 6 into a solid for use in thermo-nuclear warheads.
- Machon 4 – This facility is dedicated to the treatment of radioactive waste products. It includes a waste treatment plant and high-level waste storage. Low-level waste is mixed with tar, taken out in cans and buried nearby.
- Machon 5 – Uranium from Machon 3 is made into rods coated in aluminum to be sent to the reactor.
- Machon 6 – Supply of services to other Machons, including electricity, steam and specialized chemicals (nitrogen etc). It also hosts emergency electrical generators.
- Machon 7 – Unknown – may no longer exist.
- Machon 8 – Large laboratory for testing purity of samples from Machon 2, experiments on new processes. A secret unit (Unit 840) has been making enriched uranium since 1979-80 on a production scale. This may consist of a gas centifuge faclity for the production of enriched uranium.
- Machon 9 – A laser isotope separation facility can be used to enrich uranium and to increase the proportion of isotope plutonium-239 in plutonium.
- Machon 10 – Depleted uranium made into tips of shells for Israeli use and for export to Switzerland.
Israel may have developed a nuclear weapons capability incorporating enriched uranium. Up to 100 kilograms of enriched uranium missing from a facility at Apollo, Pennsylvania, are believed to have been taken to Israel, although other reports suggest that much of the material was recovered from the floors and ventilation ducts of the plant when it was decommissioned. In 1968, 200 tons of uranium ore disappeared from a ship in the Mediterranean Sea and probably diverted to Israel.
Plutonium production reactors which are both cooled and moderated by heavy water [like the Israeli reactor at Dimona] require about 0.75 tons of heavy water per thermal megawatt, and lose about 0.5 % of this heavy water each year.
“Dimona needed about 18t of heavy water to start operation…. France very likely agreed to supply Dimona’s heavy water along with the reactor…. From 1959 to 1963 Israel imported 20t from Norway and 3.9t from the United States. This would supply Dimona indefinitely if the reactor stayed at its rated power of 24 megawatts…. For the reactor to produce the 40 kilograms of plutonium per year described by Vanunu, it would have had to be scaled up to more than 100 megawatts…. If the amount of coolant were quadrupled, which could allow quadrupled power, Dimona would need about 36t of heavy water — 12t of moderator and 24t of coolant. The 36t is slightly less than the total that Israel could have received from Norway, the United States, and France.” HEAVY WATER CHEATERS by Gary Milhollin Foreign Policy Winter 1987-1988, p. 100-119.