Blowout: BP’s deadly oil rig disaster

May 3  2010 Updates at bottom.

Next step pollution containment chambers.

Seems the Chemicals didn’t work all that well.

Obama went to check out the damages.

The oil slick on April 30, approximately is 130 miles long and 70 miles wide and growing. Between 200,000 to 210,000 gallons per day are now spilling out of the oil well. BP  admits it cannot handle this disaster and is asking for help as well.

April 29 2010

The oil is leaking about 5,000 barrels a day apparently – five times greater than initial estimates.

Earlier reports said:

Oil continues to spill undersea at an estimated rate of 160, 000 litres a day. (  1,000 barrels or 42,000 gallons of oil a day) The oil rig may have had as much as 700 thousand gallons of diesel on it as well.

By Danny Fortson

April 25 2010

Fireboats rush to contain the flames on the rig

It was a calm, balmy evening in the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the crew of the Deepwater Horizon, a giant drilling rig moored 40 miles off the Louisiana coast, were unwinding after a 12-hour shift in the blazing sun.

It had been a good day. After weeks of drilling, the rig, a technical marvel designed to tap the world’s most remote fields, had struck oil. It was a long way down — some 18,000ft beneath their feet, further than the height of Mont Blanc.

BP, which had hired the rig, was preparing a press release to trumpet its latest success. The news would have gone down well in Washington. Weeks earlier President Barack Obama had opened up to explorers swathes of the Gulf and east coast, much of which had been off limits since the Exxon Valdez disaster in 1989.

Then at 10pm last Tuesday, Deepwater Horizon’s lights went out. An eerie thud followed. Then another. Jim Ingram, a seasoned offshore worker, was preparing for bed. “On the second [thud],” he said, “we knew something was wrong.”

Moments later a torrent of gas, oil and mud burst through the rig floor, and for reasons nobody yet knows, ignited. In an instant the Deepwater Horizon exploded into a fireball.

There was little time to react. Some of the 126 crew jumped overboard, breaking bones from the 80ft drop into the sea.

Most managed to clamber into covered lifeboats, which were quickly winched down to the water. They gathered up colleagues and sped away from the roiling blaze fed by a fountain of oil and gas.

It was 45 minutes before they were met by a nearby BP supply ship that had been alerted to the distress signal. US Coast Guard helicopters flew the critically injured to hospitals. The rest of the survivors endured a tortuously slow return trip on the supply ship.

They arrived at a hotel outside New Orleans just before 5am to tearful family members. The father of one of the workers said: “Thank God he wasn’t on the rig floor. He would have been burnt alive.”

Eleven people were missing. The coast guard covered 3,400 sq miles in spotter planes, cutters and helicopters before calling off the search on Friday. Rear Admiral Mary Landry said: “The time of reasonable expectation of survivability has passed.” All eleven are presumed dead.

The accident was the deadliest for America’s offshore industry in more than two decades. The question now is who gets the blame.

Tony Hayward, BP’s chief executive, has staked his reputation on cleaning up the company’s act. When he took over three years ago, the oil giant’s image was still tainted by the 2005 explosion at its Texas City refinery that killed 15 people and injured many more. The company paid millions in fines and pleaded guilty to criminal charges.

BP had just six men on the Deepwater Horizon. The rest were employees and contractors of Transocean, the firm that owned the rig and was responsible for the drilling. US authorities, Transocean and BP have all launched investigations to work out what went wrong.

The search for answers will be difficult: 36 hours after bursting into flames, the Deepwater Horizon capsized. The only trace it left was a one-mile by five-mile oil slick.

OBAMA enraged environmentalists last month when he repealed a moratorium on oil exploration on America’s east coast. His choice of venue for the announcement, Andrews air force base in Washington DC, in front of an F16 fighter jet modified to fly on biofuel, carried a less-than-subtle message. Finding domestic sources of fossil fuels is not just an economic issue, but a security one.

Five weeks before, Lord Hunt, Britain’s energy minister, delivered a similar message from a manufacturing yard in Fife. He announced the government’s largest-ever licensing of the seabed for oil exploration since the first parcels were offered in 1964, throwing open pristine swathes of coastal waters off Land’s End as well as large chunks of the English Channel that had previously been protected.

Domestic oil sources are dwindling at an alarming rate, pushing governments and the industry to increasingly desperate measures.

Kurt Arnold, a Houston lawyer with a pending case against Transocean, said: “The reality is that as we push and push into deeper exploration, deaths and injuries are more of a problem. You don’t hear about it because it’s offshore.

“They say it’s better than it used to be, but a lot goes unreported because of where it is.”

The Gulf of Mexico accounts for a third of America’s oil production. It attracts highly trained engineers as well as manual labourers, who can make far more than on land.

The work is dangerous. So far this year there have been three fires on rigs in the Gulf. Since 2001, 69 people have died in accidents. (The worst industry disaster remains the Piper Alpha catastrophe off Aberdeen, in 1988, when 167 workers died.) The Deepwater Horizon was designed to avoid such disasters. It was at the technological frontier, a “semi-submersible” rig intended for ultra-deep water, where rigid support structures are impossible.

Instead, it sat on pontoons equipped with thrusters that reacted to the tides to keep it in place. Six months ago it drilled to a record depth of 35,000ft. That well was also drilled for BP, not far from the site of last week’s disaster.

It is still unclear what caused the accident but it appears to have been a blowout — a sudden spike in pressure that sends oil or gas bursting up to the surface. If that happens, the blowout preventor, a guillotine-type valve on the seafloor, triggers automatically to cut the flow. It didn’t. BP sent remote-control submersibles to close it manually but they failed, which is why the rig continued to burn.

“I’m surprised by this,” said Manouchehr Takin of the Centre for Global Energy Studies, the research firm. “The deeper you go, you can find pockets of high pressure and low pressure, which can be a problem because the hydrostatic column must always be balanced. The fail-safes in place are incredibly good. This is just a tragic accident.”

BP’s relationship with Transocean will come under heavy scrutiny. Transocean is the largest offshore drilling contractor in the world with a fleet of 139 rigs.

The boom in offshore drilling, however, has led to intense competition not just for equipment but for the personnel to operate it. The most qualified crews are often shuffled between the most demanding jobs, like such as one the Deepwater Horizon was working on.

Contractually at least, the responsibility for the accident would appear to lie with Transocean. Like an architect, the oil giants design and oversee the job. It is the building firm, Transocean, that is paid to bring it to fruition, and shoulders the blame if anything goes wrong.

Speraking from Houston, Hayward said he was working closely with Transocean. “It is an incredibly good deepwater operator,” he said. “It’s their rig, their people, their systems, their processes.”

BP, as the owner of the oil, is taking the lead on the clean-up. So far this has been minimal. The fear was that oil would continue gushing when the rig sank. (Also, it had 700,000 gallons of diesel on board.) For some reason the flow reduced to a trickle.

BP has yet to determine why. A flotilla of 32 boats armed with skimming equipment and more than 1m feet of boom to contain any oil spillage remains at the ready.

Hayward said: “We want to make damn certain that this never happens again. That’s why I am here.

“We have an armada of ships ready to make sure that what is a tragic accident doesn’t become a major environmental issue.”

LESS than 36 hours passed before BP and Transocean were hit with the first lawsuit. Scott Bickford is representing the wife of Shane Roshto, 21, who had flown out a few days before to begin a three-week shift.

He is one of the 11 missing, now presumed dead.

“Both Transocean and BP are being sued. If there was any negligence, they’ll be liable,” Bickford said. “We wanted to make sure all evidence was preserved. I went down and saw one of the liferafts that was recovered. It was melted.”

This is just the beginning. It will be months before the cause of the disaster is determined and years before the last payouts are made.

For Transocean the stakes could not be higher. BP, too, will remain forever linked to another tragedy. How Hayward manages the crisis and its fallout could well be a defining moment of his reign at BP, much as Texas City was for his predecessor, Lord Browne.

The incident is certain to be exploited by all sides in the debate over where we get our energy and the risks we are willing to take.

“We strongly opposed Obama’s [offshore oil] proposal,” said Nick Berning at Friends of the Earth. “It endangers the marine environment, it’s obviously dangerous for workers and increasing our reliance on oil makes the climate crisis worse.

“His proposal is not a done deal. Legislation needs to be passed. This will influence that debate.”

Defining moment for the clean-up king

WHEN Tony Hayward took the top job at BP three years ago, the oil giant was in turmoil, writes Dominic O’Connell. Lord Browne, the “sun king” chief executive who had built up the group in a series of daring acquisitions, had left under a cloud after a boardroom bust-up.

The company was still suffering the legacy of an explosion and fire at its Texas City refinery that killed 15 workers and injured 170. The disaster had taken place two years earlier, in 2005, but a malaise still hung over BP’s American operations, fueled by the discovery of leaks in Alaskan pipelines and a string of other health and safety allegations.

Hayward, who has a first-class geology degree from Aston University in Birmingham, set out to reshape BP with a minimum of fuss and publicity. He asked Bain & Co, the business consultancy, to investigate the state of the group. The results were surprising. “I was gobsmacked,” he told The Sunday Times in an interview last November.

“They said, ‘You are the most complicated enterprise we have ever come across’. We were a very complex organisation with little clarity or accountability.”

His answer was to start hacking away at the organisation. He gutted middle management, sold assets and centralised operations. Only one in three of the top managers survived the cull. More than 6,500 jobs were eliminated and overheads fell by a third. The company’s results immediately perked up and investors were happy with Hayward’s increases in dividend payments and share buy-back programmes.

While the Gulf of Mexico explosion is not in the same league as the Texas City disaster, it is still worrying for Hayward, who is on the scene this weekend to monitor the clean-up.

President Barack Obama has only recently opened up new areas of America’s waters to exploration and BP, like the other oil giants, is desperate for virgin territories to explore.

If America pulls back, BP will be forced to look even farther afield. Source

Stormy weather delayed weekend efforts to mop up leaking oil from a damaged undersea well after the explosion and sinking of a massive rig off Louisiana’s Gulf Coast that left 11 workers missing and presumed dead. (April 25 2010)

Update April 26 2010

Fire crews attempting to extinguish fire.

Costs mount as BP battles oil disaster

By Rob Davies
April 26 2010

British oil giant BP is facing a multimillion-pound clean-up bill as it battles to contain a reputation-tarnishing oil spill off the coast of the US.

In the first major test for chief executive Tony Hayward, BP has deployed 32 ships and five aircraft to contain oil gushing from an underwater well in the Gulf of Mexico after an explosion on its Deepwater Horizon oil rig.

The explosion on the £388million rig managed by Swiss firm Transocean is thought to have killed 11 workers who have been missing since last Tuesday, while thousands of gallons of oil are being pumped into the sea.

A spokesman for BP said the clean-up operation had cost ‘ millions’ so far, but added: ‘Its money that needs to be spent and we will do what we need to.’

But the firm could be facing a multibillion-pound bill in the future, based on the fallout from the Texas City disaster in 2005, its last major US accident.

In that incident an explosion at BP’s refinery killed 15 workers and injured 180 others, prompting a report in which the firm was blamed for safety failures.

The company has paid out around £1.3billion in compensation and nearly £60million in fines for Texas City, and also reported lost earnings and repair costs of up to £650million relating to the accident. BP is already facing anger for this latest accident from US politicians, who have queued up to demand greater scrutiny of oil companies.

Florida Senator Bill Nelson said: ‘The tragedy off the coast of Louisiana shows we need to be asking a lot more tough questions of big oil.’

And his Louisiana counterpart, Senator Mary Landrieu called for a full investigation into the spill.

In a statement, the company said it ‘continues to forge ahead with a comprehensive oil well intervention and spill response plan’. One of the options being considered is to submerge a giant dome above the area of seabed from which the oil is gushing.

The dome, it is hoped, would catch the oil as it rises, which could then be pumped out.

The spokesman said the idea worked in shallow waters, but had never been tested in deep water.

The slick is around 40 miles off the coast and is not expected to reach land for three days.   Source

Big Oil Fought Off New Safety Rules Before Rig Disaster

Both companies British oil giant BP and Transocean have also aggressively opposed new safety regulations proposed last year by a federal agency that oversees offshore drilling — which were prompted by a study that found many accidents in the industry.

There were 41 deaths and 302 injuries out of 1,443 incidents from 2001 to 2007, according to the study conducted by the Minerals and Management Service of the Interior Department. In addition, the agency issued 150 reports over incidents of non-compliant production and drilling operations and determined there was “no discernible improvement by industry over the past 7 years.” For entire story go HERE

Update April 27 2010

Robot subs attempt to shut off oil leak

A vessel tries to contain oil spilled from a sunken rig in the Gulf of Mexico

Engineers from the British oil giant BP were yesterday racing to avert an environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico as crude continued to leak at the site of the submerged oil rig Deepwater Horizon, which exploded and collapsed a week ago.

Up to 42,000 gallons of oil a day is spewing from a crumpled pipeline and uncapped well nearly a mile below the ocean’s surface, about 40 miles off the Louisiana coast.

Efforts to stop it rest in part on robot submersibles but BP officials said the task was “highly complex” and might not succeed. Surface operations by aircraft and ships to break up a thin slick that has grown to about 600 square miles were postponed by bad weather.

It was feared that a change of wind direction might push the oil towards land. “We’re in a very serious situation,” said Rear-Admiral Mary Landry, of the US Coast Guard. “Forty-five to 90 days is the initial estimate … before this well could be secured.” A search for 11 missing workers from the rig was called off on Friday. Source

Related

Oil spill set deadly record for Sea Birds

The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 killed more sea birds than any oil spill in history, according to a study by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists. For the entire Story go HERE

Legacy of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Excerpts from different articles at the site.

2 studies report long-term effects on Sea Otters.

Many fishermen were also hit by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill

10 years later, front-line spill workers link physical ailments to cleanup work, cancer being one of them.

The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was not the most egregious accident to damage ocean waters, but “only one of many, many changes, the mass majority of which are incremental, invisible, sometimes irreversible … and together quite insidious,” according to Jane Lubchenco, a professor of marine biology at Oregon State University                                                 For all the articles go HERE

Exxon Valdez payments List

List of Oil spills around the world

Another recent disaster in a mine. 25 died.

Deadly Record: Massey’s Mine In Montcoal Has Been Cited For Over 3,000 Violations, Over $2.2 Million In Fines

Safety Violations

Well who is keeping tabs on safety one has to wonder?

If a mine can have 3,000 violations, one has to wonder how many violations there are in the oil industry?

Safety should be paramount in all industries,  but in these two sectors mining an oil there seems to be little done to prevent disasters.  Why?

This is for the safety of the people who work there, those living in the areas, the impact on wildlife, the impact on water supplies and the destruction to the environment as a whole.

Seems none of the above are really taken into consideration.

Over the last week I noticed the price of Gas went down a bit because of the planes being grounded by the Volcanic eruption in Iceland.

Well that gave me a profound thought.

One has to wonder how much the price of Gas would go down if war was eliminated.

How much of the worlds resources are wasted on war?

How much does war, in total dollars and cents, cost the world?

You need the resources to make the weapons, planes, tanks, ships and jeeps etc. You need the fuel to transport and operate, the vehicles  vehicles once they are there.

The total cost from beginning to end must be staggering.

The destruction of lives and the environment are horrendous. In many cases the destruction is permanent.

The cost of Health care due to war is unimaginable.

The total cost of war is beyond your wildest dreams.

If a volcanic eruption can bring down the price of gas over a week, imagine how much the price of gas would fall without war.

War is not a necessity.  It is time we removed all the things that are not necessary that wastes the worlds resources.

If you want to save trillions of dollars a year. Eliminate war.

Spend the money on agriculture in third world countries so they can feed themselves.

To curb over population promote birth control. Millions of women around the world do not have access to it. Millions cannot even afford it.

Spend the money on renewable energies.

There are a million ways to spend money on more constructive things as opposed to war.

Save the environment we live in, instead.

Hey everyone is allowed to fantasize right.

But if you had a choice of the environment and war, which would it be?

War is a major polluter.

War is not sustainable on any level.

War “Pollution” Equals Millions of Deaths

Update April 28 2010

U.S. Coast Guard to burn oil leaking from sunken rig

By Kevin McGill
April 28 2010

NEW ORLEANS—Racing against a threat to environmentally sensitive marshlands, authorities planned to begin Wednesday burning some of the thickest oil from a rig explosion off the coast of Louisiana.

A U.S. Coast Guard spokesman said the burn was expected to begin in the morning.

Petty Officer 2nd Class Prentice Danner says fire-resistant containment booms will be used to corral some of the thickest oil on the water’s surface, which will then be ignited. It was unclear how large an area would be set on fire or how far from shore the first fire would be set.

The slick is the result of oil leaking from the site of last week’s huge explosion of the rig Deepwater Horizon that left 11 people missing and presumed dead.

Oil continues to spill undersea at an estimated rate of 160, 000 litres a day. ( 1,000 barrels or 42,000 gallons of oil a day)

Robot submarines have been unable to cap the well. Operator BP Plc. says work will begin as early as Thursday to drill a relief well to take pressure off the flow from the blowout site. That could take months.

Winds and currents in the Gulf have helped crews in recent days as they try to contain the leak, but it has moved steadily toward the mouth of the Mississippi River, an area home to hundreds of species of wildlife and near some of the Gulf’s richest oyster grounds.

Meanwhile, the cost of the disaster continues to rise.

The Deepwater Horizon exploded on April 20. The rig was owned by Transocean Ltd. and operated by BP.

Industry officials say replacing the Deepwater Horizon would cost up to $700 million (dollar figures U.S.). BP has said its costs associated with containing the spill are running at $6 million a day. The company said it will spend $100 million to drill the relief well, which it does not expect to be operating for up to three months. The coast guard has not yet reported its expenses.  Source

Imagine the air pollution from this one.

April 28, 2010

Update April 29 2010

Working on off shore rigs is dangerous in the Gulf of Mexico since 2001 there have been 59 fatalities, 1,349 injuries and 852 fires.

But that is only the off shore ones I went looking for all the accidents just to see how many there are around the world.

I didn’t find anything about  world wide statistics yet but I did find some Rather interesting pictures of Accidents

Blowouts and some of the injures oil workers have had ( warning some of them are horrendous). There are many pictures and videos on oil wells. Be sure to check them out. There is a wealth of information at the site,  just check the Site Map to find it all. You could spend the day there and not get through it all. Oilfield Accidents

Thought a few of you might be interested in having a look.

Excellent photos that show Deep water Horizon sinking. Transocean Deepwater Horizon photo slide show…

Click on image to enlarge.


Compliments of Roughneck City

More Photos of the Transocean Deepwater Horizon Fire

Blowouts are explained on the video Lodgepole link below. It took 63 days to finally cap the well. It was above ground not under water. Underwater is much more difficult..I would imagine..If you watch all five Videos on Lodgepole you will see why. It seemed anything that could go wrong did. Go to the Video page for the other 4 videos. Blowout at Lodgepole Part 1

Update April 29 2010

Oil spill in Gulf of Mexico ‘could be worse than Exxon Valdez disaster’

The US Coast Guard and the oil firm were leading the bid to limit the spread of slick, fed by oil leaking from broken well pipes one mile under the sea at an estimated rate of 5,000 barrels a day – five times greater than initial estimates.

With three leaks detected near the sea, the spill could eventually match the Exxon Valdez disaster in 1989, when 11 million gallons gushed from a crippled tanker into an Alaskan sound, devastating the local habitat.

For the entire story Go HERE

The oil slick could hit the shoreline , Thursday April 29 2010 from what many reports have said.  Apparently it is about about 12 miles out earlier today.

Two Mysteries Surround Gulf Oil Spill …

April 29 2010

Normally, hydraulic equipment controlled by engineers up on the oil rig can close the BOP. As a backup, most BOPs have automatic shutoff valves known as “Dead Man” switches that cause the BOPs to close automatically if there is loss of communication from the oil rig. As another backup measure, many BOPs have radio-controlled switches to allow crews to close the valve remotely—but the Deepwater Horizon lacked that device. So now, as the oil continues to pour out of the open well nearly 1.5 kilometers below the ocean surface, engineers are desperately trying to close the BOP manually using an arm on a robotic submersible. For the entire story go HERE

Army of volunteers needed for Gulf oil spill cleanup

Volunteer efforts are underway in Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama and Florida to contain and clean up the massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
The Deep Water Horizon response team is actively working to contain the spill and has laid down 217,000 feet of barrier. They’re asking coastal residents to report areas where oil can be seen on the shore or to leave contact information if they wish to volunteer by calling 1-866-448-5816. Oiled animals should be reported at 1-866-557-1401, but not captured.
The National Audubon Society is carefully coordinating their response with government officials to ensure that the response goes as smoothly as possible. Prospective volunteers who sign up at AudubonAction.org will be connected with state and federal agencies, Audubon leaders and other volunteer organizations who are in need of assistance.
For the entire story and organizations looking for help and donations go HERE to get phone numbers or web sites.

As the oil begins to wash ashore, reports David Usborne reports from Venice, Louisiana, on a community powerless to save itself.

May 1  2010

Despair and resignation reigned among fishermen and other seafaring residents of the southern Louisiana shoreline yesterday as the vast Gulf of Mexico oil slick began to slide silently into fragile marshlands and ecologically precious inlets fed by a deep-water leak that no one seems able to plug.

“They can’t turn it off, they don’t know how to,” lamented Captain Sean Lanier, who makes his livelihood taking tourists fishing for redfish and speckled trout through the grassy waterways and inlets at the mouth of Mississippi here. “What we need now is a James Bond to go down there and close that thing down.”

More than a week after the sinking of the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon rig, about 40 miles out to sea from here, the leading edge of a slick as large as Jamaica was beginning to lick the reeds and mud flats of the estuary, threatening oyster beds, fisheries and tourism in communities that have barely recovered from Hurricane Katrina. Strong winds and 7ft waves were pushing the slick inshore even faster.

For the entire story go HERE

White House Suspends New Drilling / Oil Spill Hits Gulf Coast Shoreline

Update for May 2 2010

Now they are thinking about using a Chemical to help clean up the mess which may be as bad for the environment as the oil as there is has not been any long term study done however.

Oil-spill disaster: Chemicals used in cleanup add to toxic mix

May 2, 2010

For now, heavy applications of the soaplike liquid may be all that stand between the fast-spreading crude and Florida’s coastline, which could be in jeopardy by midweek, , according to projections by response authorities in Roberts, La.

Environmental advocates and scientists consider dispersant the lesser of two evils when faced with what could turn out to be the nation’s worst drilling-related offshore oil spill. And the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency warns that “dispersants used today are less toxic than those used in the past, but long-term, cumulative effects of dispersant use are still unknown.” For entire story go HERE

To bad they didn’t have a few dozen Slick Lickers. Other wise known as Oilevator. And old invention.

They probably don’t even make them any more. But had they had a few of those it would be better then using Chemicals and you still get to save  the oil.  Now one would think this type of invention could have been improved upon considering the drilling at sea, as they do now.  A few of these on  a larger scale would be  very helpful at a time like this. But whatever. Just a thought from a stupid person? LOL Beats Chemicals all to hell of course. And remember, if we run out of oil we can always go back to the old horse and buggy days. Horses were smart enough not to have head on collisions.

Environment: The Slick-Licker

Ferried out to the spill on small landing craft, four lickers extended their long, conveyor belt “tongues” to the oil. A whir of machinery, and the absorbent material on the belt spun into the oil and sopped it up. Heavy rollers at the end of the conveyors then squeezed out the oil into 45-gallon drums. In ten weeks about 200,000 gallons of oil had been lapped up. The licker is doubly effective because its conveyor belt is coated with oil prior to deployment. The result is that the tongue repels surrounding water and gobbles up only oil.

Oilevator is dirt cheap (about $7,500 per machine), and it has worked so well that a government task force has recommended that at least one slick-licker be placed in each Canadian port. For entire story go HERE

Halliburton in spotlight in gulf spill probe

Updates May 3 2010


In this April 26, 20010 photo released by the U.S. Coast Guard, the base of a pollution containment chamber is moved to a construction area at Wild Well Control, Inc. in Port Fourchon, La., April 26, 2010. The chamber will be one of the largest ever built and will be used in an attempt to contain an oil leak related to the mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon explosion. (AP Photo/U.S. Coast Guard, Petty Officer Third Class Patrick Kelley)

Crews have had little success stemming the flow from the ruptured well on the sea floor off Louisiana or removing oil from the surface by skimming it, burning it or dispersing it with chemicals. For entire story go HERE

The containment chambers will be 40 feet tall, 24 feet wide and 14 feet deep.

We have a second type of containment Dome. Not sure which one will be used.

How to stop the BP oil spill: What else can be tried now? May 3, 2010

Welders at work on the Pollution Control Dome being built in Port Fourchon Monday, as BP rushes to cap the source of the oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon platform disaster. BP might be ready to deploy the structure, which would funnel the oil into ships, by this weekend. Newscom For entire story go HERE

Obama toured the Coast.

The bulk of the slick is now nine miles offshore.

Mr Obama flew to New Orleans and drove for two hours to the tip of the Mississippi delta to show his concern for communities at risk of economic extinction from the growing oil slick to the south – and to show Americans that he has learnt from his predecessor’s mistakes. The visit was part of an urgent push by the White House to present its response to Louisiana’s latest disaster as more nimble than that of President Bush after Hurricane Katrina in 2005. For entire story go HERE

Iran offers to help contain US oil spill

May 3 2010

The National Iranian Drilling Company (NIDC) has offered to assist the US in efforts to prevent an ecological disaster caused by the spreading oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

Following an explosion on a BP-operated oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico last month, at least 210,000 gallons (5,000 barrels) of crude oil are thought to be spilling into the water every day.

NIDC managing director Heidar Bahmani announced the firm’s readiness to use its decades-long expertise to fight the oil slick, the company’s public relations office told Press TV.

“Our oil industry experts in the field of drilling can contain the rig leakage in the Gulf of Mexico and prevent an ecological disaster in that part of the world,” Bahmani said.

Overlooking the new US drive for slapping more UN sanctions on Iran over its civilian nuclear program, the company said that there is an urgent need for action to protect the nearby coasts from the advancing oil spill.

The governors of Alabama, Louisiana and Florida have reportedly called a state of emergency for fear of the oil slick’s environmental and economic damages.

The disaster has also prompted the White House to ban oil drillings in new areas of the US coast until the British company explains the cause of the explosion that killed 11 employees and resulted in the oil spill.

Maybe the US and BP should consider the help seems they are not doing so well on their own. Maybe Iran has the answers they need. It’s  time to put ego’s aside.

They do after all  help the US in the Health care field.

This is rather interesting It talks about  some of the Chemicals/pollution that  are emitted while drilling for oil among other things…Check table 2 on page 10

I have one question that I haven’t found an answer for yet. Who built the “Blowout Preventor” that failed to work?

BP is hoping to have the oil stopped withing a week. Somehow I have a hard time believing that.

Seems everything that has been tried has not worked.

This is a very nasty oil disaster and there are three leaks at this point in time.


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War “Pollution” Equals Millions of Deaths

New stories are added as I find them.

All new links are at the bottom of the page.

Iraq War Pollution Equals 25 Million Cars

Burning Oil in Iraq

Photo: Burning oil fields in Iraq by Shawn Baldwin

The greenhouse gases released by the Iraq war thus far equals the pollution from adding 25 million cars to the road for one year says a study released by Oil Change International, an anti petroleum watchdog.  The group’s main concerns are the environmental and human rights impacts of a petroleum based economy.

The study, released last March on the fifth anniversary of the Iraq War, states that total US spending on the war so far equals the global investment needed through 2030 to halt global warming.

Of course skeptics and oil companies will be right to ask how these numbers were calculated.  The group claims Iraq war emissions estimates come from combat, oil well fires, increaesd gas flaring, increased cement manufacturing for reconstruction, and explosives.

The Report: A Climate of War

Source


“Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development, as necessary.” – 1992 Rio Declaration

The application of weapons, the destruction of structures and oil fields, fires, military transport movements and chemical spraying are all examples of the destroying impact war may have on the environment. Air, water and soil are polluted, man and animal are killed, and numerous health affects occur among those still living. This page is about the environmental effects of wars and incidents leading to war that have occurred in the 20th and 21st century.

Timeline of wars

Africa

“My hands are tied
The billions shift from side to side
And the wars go on with brainwashed pride
For the love of God and our human rights
And all these things are swept aside
By bloody hands time can’t deny
And are washed away by your genocide
And history hides the lies of our civil wars” – Guns ‘n Roses (Civil War)

In Africa many civil wars and wars between countries occurred in the past century, some of which are still continuing. Most wars are a result of the liberation of countries after decades of colonialization. Countries fight over artificial borders drawn by former colonial rulers. Wars mainly occur in densely populated regions, over the division of scarce resources such as fertile farmland. It is very hard to estimate the exact environmental impact of each of these wars. Here, a summary of some of the most striking environmental effects, including biodiversity loss, famine, sanitation problems at refugee camps and over fishing is given for different countries.

Congo war (II) – Since August 1998 a civil war is fought in former Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The war eventually ended in 2003 when a Transitional Government took power. A number of reasons are given for the conflict, including access and control of water resources and rich minerals and political agendas. Currently over 3 million people have died in the war, mostly from disease and starvation. More than 2 million people have become refugees. Only 45% of the people had access to safe drinking water. Many women were raped as a tool of intimidation, resulting in a rapid spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV-AIDS. The war has a devastating effect on the environment. National parks housing endangered species are often affected for exploitation of minerals and other resources. Refugees hunt wildlife for bush meat, either to consume or sell it. Elephant populations in Africa have seriously declined as a result of ivory poaching. Farmers burn parts of the forest to apply as farmland, and corporate logging contributes to the access of poachers to bush meat. A survey by the WWF showed that the hippopotamus population in one national park decreased from 29,000 thirty years previously, to only 900 in 2005. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) listed all five parks as ‘world heritage in danger’.

Ethiopia & Eritrea – Before 1952, Eritrea was a colony of Italy. When it was liberated, Ethiopia annexed the country. Thirty years of war over the liberation of Eritrea followed, starting in 1961 and eventually ending with the independence of Eritrea in 1993. However, war commenced a year after the country introduced its own currency in 1997. Over a minor border dispute, differences in ethnicity and economic progress, Ethiopia again attacked Eritrea. The war lasted until June 2000 and resulted in the death of over 150,000 Eritrean, and of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians. During the war severe drought resulted in famine, particularly because most government funds were spend on weapons and other war instrumentation. The government estimated that after the war only 60% of the country received adequate food supplies. The war resulted in over 750,000 refugees. It basically destroyed the entire infrastructure. Efforts to disrupt agricultural production in Eritrea resulted in changes in habitat. The placing of landmines has caused farming or herding to be very dangerous in most parts of the country. If floods occur landmines may be washed into cities. This has occurred earlier in Mozambique.

Rwanda civil war – Between April and July 1994 extremist military Hutu groups murdered about 80,000-1,000,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda. Over 2,000,000 people lost their homes and became refugees. Rwanda has a very rich environment, however, it has a particularly limited resource base. About 95% of the population lives on the countryside and relies on agriculture. Some scientists believe that competition for scarce land and resources led to violence prior to and particularly after the 1994 genocide. It is however stated that resource scarcity only contributed limitedly to the conflict under discussion. The main cause of the genocide was the death of the president from a plane-crash caused by missiles fires from a camp.

The many refugees from the 1994 combat caused a biodiversity problem. When they returned to the already overpopulated country after the war, they inhabited forest reserves in the mountains where endangered gorillas lived. Conservation of gorilla populations was no longer effective, and refuges destroyed part of the habitat. Despite the difficulties still present in Rwanda particularly concerning security and resource provision, an international gorilla protection group is now working on better conditions for the gorillas in Rwanda.

Somalia civil war – A civil war was fought in Somalia 1991. One of the most striking effects of the war was over fishing. The International Red Cross was encouraging the consumption of seawater fish to improve diets of civilians. For self-sufficiency they provided training and fishing equipment. However, as a consequence of war Somali people ignored international fishing protocols, thereby seriously harming ecology in the region. Fishing soon became an unsustainable practise, and fishermen are hard to stop because they started carrying arms. They perceive over fishing as a property right and can therefore hardly be stopped.

Sudan (Darfur & Chad) – In Sudan civil war and extreme droughts caused a widespread famine, beginning in 1983. Productive farmland in the southern region was abandoned during the war. Thousands of people became refugees that left behind their land, possibly never to return. Attempts of remaining farmers to cultivate new land to grow crops despite the drought led to desertification and soil erosion. The government failed to act for fear of losing its administrative image abroad, causing the famine to kill an estimated 95,000 of the total 3,1 million residents of the province Darfur. As farmers started claiming more and more land, routes applied by herders were closed off. This resulted in conflicts between farmers and rebels groups. In 2003, a conflict was fought in Darfur between Arab Sudanese farmers and non-Arab Muslims. The Muslim group is called Janjaweed, a tribe mainly consisting of nomadic sheep and cattle herders. Originally the Janjaweed were part of the Sudanese and Darfurian militia, and were armed by the Sudanese government to counter rebellion. However, they started utilizing the weapons against non-Muslim civilians. The tribe became notorious for massacre in 2003-2004. In December 2005 the conflict continued across the border, now involving governmental army troops from Chad, and the rebel groups Janjaweed and United Front for Democratic Change from Sudan. In February 2006 the governments of Chad and Sudan signed a peace treaty called the Tripoli Agreement. Unfortunately a new rebel assault of the capital of Chad in April made Chad break all ties with Sudan. The Darfur Conflict so far caused the death of between 50,000 and 450,000 civilians. It caused over 45,000 people to flea the countries of Sudan and Central Africa, into north and east Chad. Most refugees claim they fled civilian attacks from rebel forces, looting food and recruiting young men to join their troops.

America

Pearl Harbor (WWII) – When World War II began, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Consequentially, the United States closed the Panama Canal to Japanese shipping, and initiated a complete oil embargo. Japan, being dependent on US oil, responded to the embargo violently. On December 1941, Japanese troops carried out a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, aimed at the US Navy stationed there. Despite the awareness that Japan might attack, the US was surprisingly unprepared for the Japanese aggression. There were no aircraft patrols, and anti-aircraft weapons were not manned.

For the attack five Japanese submarines were present in the harbor to launch torpedos. One was discovered immediately, and attacked by the USS Ward. All five submarines sank, and at least three of them have not been located since. As Japanese bombers arrived they began firing at US marine airbases across Hawaii, and subsequently battle ships in Pearl Harbor. Eighteen ships sank, including five battleships, and a total of more than 2,000 Americans were killed in action. The explosion of the USS Arizona caused half of the casualties. The ship was hit by a bomb, burned for two days in a row, and subsequently sank to the bottom. The cloud of black smoke over the boat was mainly caused by burning black powder from the magazine for aircraft catapults aboard the ship.

Leaking fuel from the Arizona and other ships caught fire, and caused more ships to catch fire. Of the 350 Japanese planes taking part in the attack, 29 were lost. Over sixty Japanese were killed in actions, most of them airmen.

Today, three battle ships are still at the bottom of the harbor. Four others were raised and reused. The USS Arizona, being the most heavily damaged ship during the attack, continues to leak oil from the hulk into the harbor. However, the wreck is maintained, because it now serves as part of a war memorial.

World Trade Centre explosion – The so-called ‘War on Terrorism’ the United States are fighting in Asia currently all started with the event we recall so well from the shocking images projected on news bulletins. On September 11, 2001, terrorists flew airplanes into the buildings of the World Trade Centre. It is now claimed that the attack and simultaneous collapse of the Twin Towers caused a serious and acute environmental disaster.

We will live in the death smog for a while,
breathing the dust of the dead,
the 3 thousand or so who turn to smoke,
as the giant ashtray in Lower Manhattan
continues to give up ghosts.
The dead are in us now,
locked in our chests,
staining our lungs,
polluting our bloodstreams.
And though we cover our faces with flags
and other pieces of cloth to filter the air,
the spirits of the dead aren’t fooled
by our masks
.” Lawrence Swan, 05-10-2001

As the planes hit the Twin Towers more than 90.000 litres of jet fuel burned at temperatures above 1000oC. An atmospheric plume formed, consisting of toxic materials such as metals, furans, asbestos, dioxins, PAH, PCB and hydrochloric acid. Most of the materials were fibres from the structure of the building. Asbestos levels ranged from 0.8-3.0% of the total mass. PAH comprised more than 0.1% of the total mass, and PCBs less than 0.001% of total mass. At the site now called Ground Zero, a large pile of smoking rubble burned intermittently for more than 3 months. Gaseous and particulate particles kept forming long after the towers had collapsed.


Aerial photograph of the plume

The day of the attacks dust particles of various sizes spread over lower Manhattan and Brooklyn, for many miles. Fire fighters and medics working at the WTC were exposed, but also men and women on the streets and in nearby buildings, and children in nearby schools. In vivo inhalation studies and epidemiological studies pointed out the impact of the dust cloud. Health effects from inhaling dust included bronchial hyper reactivity, because of the high alkalinity of dust particles. Other possible health effects include coughs, an increased risk of asthma and a two-fold increase in the number of small-for-gestational-age baby’s among pregnant women present in or nearby the Twin Towers at the time of the attack. After September, airborne pollutant concentrations in nearby communities declined.

Many people present at the WTC at the time of the attacks are still checked regularly, because long-term effects may eventually show. It is thought there may be an increased risk of development of mesothelioma, consequential to exposure to asbestos. This is a disease where malignant cells develop in the protective cover of the body’s organs. Airborne dioxins in the days and weeks after the attack may increase the risk of cancer and diabetes. Infants of women that were pregnant on September 11 and had been in the vicinity of the WTC at the time of the attack are also checked for growth or developmental problems.

Asia

Afghanistan war – In October 2001, the United States attacked Afghanistan as a starting chapter of the ‘War on terrorism’, which still continues today. The ultimate goal was to replace the Taliban government, and to find apparent 9/11 mastermind and Al-Qaeda member Osama Bin Laden. Many European countries assisted the US in what was called ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’.

During the war, extensive damage was done to the environment, and many people suffered health effects from weapons applied to destroy enemy targets. It is estimated that ten thousand villages, and their surrounding environments were destroyed. Safe drinking water declined, because of a destruction of water infrastructure and resulting leaks, bacterial contamination and water theft. Rivers and groundwater were contaminated by poorly constructed landfills located near the sources.

Afghanistan once consisted of major forests watered by monsoons. During the war, Taliban members illegally trading timber in Pakistan destroyed much of the forest cover. US bombings and refugees in need of firewood destroyed much of what remained. Less than 2% of the country still contains a forest cover today.

Bombs threaten much of the country’s wildlife. One the world’s important migratory thoroughfare leads through Afghanistan. The number of birds now flying this route has dropped by 85%. In the mountains many large animals such as leopards found refuge, but much of the habitat is applied as refuge for military forces now. Additionally, refugees capture leopards and other large animals are and trade them for safe passage across the border.

Pollution from application of explosives entered air, soil and water. One example is cyclonite, a toxic substance that may cause cancer. Rocket propellants deposited perchlorates, which damage the thyroid gland. Numerous landmines left behind in Afghan soils still cause the deaths of men, women and children today.

Cambodia civil war – In 1966 the Prince of Cambodia began to lose the faith of many for failure to come to grips with the deteriorating economic situation. In 1967 rebellion started in a wealthy province where many large landowners lives. Villagers began attacking the tax collection brigade, because taxes were invested in building large factories, causing land to be taken. This led to a bloody civil war. Before the conflict could be repressed 10,000 people had died.

The rebellion caused the up rise of the Khmer Rouge, a Maoist-extremist organization that wanted to introduce communism in the country. In 1975 the organization, led by Pol Pot, officially seized power in Cambodia. The Khmer considered farmers (proletarians) to be the working class, as did Mao in China earlier. Schools, hospitals and banks were closed, the country was isolated from all foreign influence, and people were moved to the countryside for forced labor. People were obligated to work up to 12 hours a day, growing three times as many crops, as was usually the case. Many people died there from exhaustion, illness and starvation, or where shot by the Khmer on what was known as ‘The Killing Fields’.

The Khmer Rouge regime resulted in deforestation, caused by extensive timber logging to finance war efforts, agricultural clearance, construction, logging concessions and collection of wood fuels. A total 35% of the Cambodian forest cover was lost under the Maoist regime. Deforestation resulted in severe floods, damaging rice crops and causing food shortages. In 1993, a ban on logging exports was introduced to prevent further flooding damage.

In 1979 the Khmer Rouge regime ended with an invasion by Vietnam, and the installation of a pro-Vietnamese puppet government. Subsequently, Thai and Chinese forces attempted to liberate the country from Vietnamese dominance. Many landmines were placed in the 1980’s, and are still present in the countryside. They deny agricultural use of the land where they are placed. In 1992 free elections were introduced, but the Khmer Rouge resumed fighting. Eventually, half of the Khmer soldiers left in 1996, and many officials were captured. Under the Khmer regime, a total of 1.7 million people died, and the Khmer was directly responsible for about 750,000 of those casualties.

Hiroshima & Nagasaki nuclear explosions – Atomic bombs are based on the principle of nuclear fission, which was discovered in Nazi Germany in 1938 by two radio chemists. During the process, atoms are split and energy is released in the form of heat. Controlled reactions are applied in nuclear power plants for production of electricity, whereas unchecked reactions occur during nuclear bombings. The invention in Germany alarmed people in the United States, because the Nazi’s in possession of atomics bombs would be much more dangerous than they already where. When America became involved in WWII, the development of atomic bombs started there in what was called the ‘Manhattan Project’. In July 1945 an atomic bomb was tested in the New Mexico desert. The tests were considered a success, and America was now in possession of one of the world’s deadliest weapons.

In 1945, at the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, nuclear weapons were applied to kill for the first time in Japan. On August 6, a uranium bomb by the name of Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima, followed by a plutonium bomb by the name of Fat Man on Nagasaki on August 9. The reason Hiroshima was picked was that it was a major military centre. The bomb detonated at 8.15 p.m. over a Japanese Army parade field, where soldiers were already present. Nagasaki was picked because it was an industrial centre. The bomb, which was much larger than that used on Hiroshima, exploded at 11.02 a.m. at an industrial site. However, the hills on and the geographical location of the bombing site caused the eventual impact to be smaller than days earlier in Hiroshima.

The first impact of the atomic bombings was a blinding light, accompanied by a giant wave of heat. Dry flammable materials caught fire, and all men and animals within half a mile from the explosion sites died instantly. Many structures collapsed, in Nagasaki even the structures designed to survive earthquakes were blasted away. Many water lines broke. Fires could not be extinguished because of the water shortage, and six weeks after the blast the city still suffered from a lack of water. In Hiroshima a number of small fires combined with wind formed a firestorm, killing those who did not die before but were left immobile for some reason. Within days after the blasts, radiation sickness started rearing its ugly head, and many more people would die from it within the next 5 years.

The total estimated death toll:
In Hiroshima 100,000 were killed instantly, and between 100,000 and 200,000 died eventually.
In Nagasaki about 40,000 were killed instantly, and between 70,000 and 150,000 died eventually.

The events of August 6 and August 9 can be translated into environmental effects more literally. The blasts caused air pollution from dust particles and radioactive debris flying around, and from the fires burning everywhere. Many plants and animals were killed in the blast, or died moments to months later from radioactive precipitation. Radioactive sand clogged wells used for drinking water winning, thereby causing a drinking water problem that could not easily be solved. Surface water sources were polluted, particularly by radioactive waste. Agricultural production was damaged; dead stalks of rice could be found up to seven miles from ground zero. In Hiroshima the impact of the bombing was noticeable within a 10 km radius around the city, and in Nagasaki within a 1 km radius.

Iraq & Kuwait – The Gulf War was fought between Iraq, Kuwait and a number of western countries in 1991. Kuwait had been part of Iraq in the past, but was liberated by British imperialism, as the Iraqi government described it. In August 1990, Iraqi forces claimed that the country was illegally extracting oil from Iraqi territory, and attacked. The United Nations attempted to liberate Kuwait. Starting January 1991, Operation Desert Storm began, with the purpose of destroying Iraqi air force and anti-aircraft facilities, and command and control facilities. The battle was fought in Iraq, Kuwait and the Saudi-Arabian border region. Both aerial and ground artillery was applied. Late January, Iraqi aircraft were flown to Iran, and Iraqi forces began to flee.

The Gulf War was one of the most environmentally devastating wars ever fought. Iraq dumped approximately one million tons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf, thereby causing the largest oil spill in history (see environmental disasters). Approximately 25,000 migratory birds were killed. The impact on marine life was not as severe as expected, because warm water sped up the natural breakdown of oil. Local prawn fisheries did experience problems after the war. Crude oil was also spilled into the desert, forming oil lakes covering 50 square kilometres. In due time the oil percolated into groundwater aquifers.

Fleeing Iraqi troops ignited Kuwaiti oil sources, releasing half a ton of air pollutants into the atmosphere. Environmental problems caused by the oil fires include smog formation and acid rain. Toxic fumes originating from the burning oil wells compromised human health, and threatened wildlife. A soot layer was deposited on the desert, covering plants, and thereby preventing them from breathing. Seawater was applied to extinguish the oil fires, resulting in increased salinity in areas close to oil wells. It took about nine months to extinguish the fires.

During the war, many dams and sewage water treatment plants were targeted and destroyed. A lack of possibilities for water treatment resulting from the attacks caused sewage to flow directly into the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Additionally, pollutants seeped from bombed chemical plants into the rivers. Drinking water extracted from the river was polluted, resulting in widespread disease. For example, cases of typhoid fever have increased tenfold since 1991.

Movement of heavy machinery such as tanks through the desert damaged the brittle surface, causing soil erosion. Sand was uncovered that formed gradually moving sand dunes. These dunes may one day cause problems for Kuwait City. Tanks fired Depleted Uranium (DU) missiles, which can puncture heavy artillery structures. DU is a heavy metal that causes kidney damage and is suspected to be teratogenic and carcinogenic. Post-Gulf War reports state an increase in birth defects for children born to veterans. The impact of Depleted Uranium could not be thoroughly investigated after the Gulf War, because Saddam Hussein refused to cooperate. Its true properties were revealed after the Kosovo War in 2001 (description below). DU has now been identified as a neurotoxin, and birth defects and cancers are attributed to other chemical and nerve agents. However, it is stated that DU oxides deposited in the lungs of veterans have not been thoroughly researched yet. It was later found that this may cause kidney and lung infections for highly exposed persons.

After the Gulf War many veterans suffered from a condition now known as the Gulf War Syndrome. The causes of the illness are subject to widespread speculation. Examples of possible causes are exposure to DU (see above), chemical weapons (nerve gas and mustard gas), an anthrax vaccine given to 41% of US soldiers and 60-75% of UK soldiers, smoke from burning oil wells and parasites. Symptoms of the GWS included chronic fatigue, muscle problems, diarrhoea, migraine, memory loss, skin problems and shortness of breath. Many Gulf War veterans have died of illnesses such as brain cancer, now acknowledged as potentially connected to service during the war.

Iraq & the United States – The war in Iraq started by the United States in 2003 as part of the War on Terrorism causes poverty, resulting in environmental problems. Long-term environmental effects of the war remain unclear, but short-term problems have been identified for every environmental compartment. For example, some weapons are applied that may be extremely damaging to the environment, such as white phosphorus ammunition. People around the world protest the application of such armoury.

Water
Damage to sanitation structures by frequent bombing, and damage to sewage treatment systems by power blackouts cause pollution of the River Tigris. Two hundred blue plastic containers containing uranium were stolen from a nuclear power plant located south of Baghdad. The radioactive content of the barrels was dumped in rivers and the barrels were rinsed out. Poor people applied the containers as storage facility for water, oil and tomatoes, or sold them to others. Milk was transported to other regions in the barrels, making it almost impossible to relocate them.

Air
Oil trenches are burning, as was the case in the Gulf War of 1991, resulting in air pollution. In Northern Iraq, a sulphur plant burned for one month, contributing to air pollution. As fires continue burning, groundwater applied as a drinking water source may be polluted.

Soil
Military movements and weapon application result in land degradation. The destruction of military and industrial machinery releases heavy metals and other harmful substances.

Read more on restoring water systems in Iraq

Israel & Lebanon – In July 2006, Hezbollah initiated a rocket attack on Israeli borders. A ground patrol killed and captured Israeli soldiers. This resulted in open war between Israel and Lebanon.

The war caused environmental problems as Israelis bombed a power station south of Beirut. Damaged storage tanks leaked an estimated 20,000 tons of oil into the Mediterranean Sea. The oil spill spread rapidly, covering over 90 km of the coastline, killing fish and affecting the habitat of the endangered green sea turtle. A sludge layer covers Beaches across Lebanon, and the same problem may occur in Syria as the spill continues to spread. Part of the oil spill burned, causing widespread air pollution. Smog affects the health of people living in the city of Beirut. So far problems limiting the clean-up operation of oil spills have occurred, because of ongoing violence in the region.

Another major problem were forest fires in Northern Israel caused by Hezbollah bombings. A total of 9,000 acres of forest burned to the ground, and fires threaten tree reserves and bird sanctuaries.

Russia & Chechnya – In 1994 the First Chechen War of independence started, between Russian troops, Chechen guerrilla fighters and civilians. Chechnya has been a province of Russia for a very long time and now desires independence. The First War ended in 1996, but in 1999 Russia again attacked Chechnya for purposes of oil distribution.

The war between the country and its province continues today. It has devastating effects on the region of Chechnya. An estimated 30% of Chechen territory is contaminated, and 40% of the territory does not meet environmental standards for life. Major environmental problems include radioactive waste and radiation, oil leaks into the ground from bombarded plants and refineries, and pollution of soil and surface water. Russia has buried radioactive waste in Chechnya. Radiation at some sites is ten times its normal level. Radiation risks increase as Russia bombs the locations, particularly because after 1999 the severeness of weaponry increased. A major part of agricultural land is polluted to the extent that it can no longer meet food supplies. This was mainly caused by unprofessional mini-refineries of oil poachers in their backyards, not meeting official standards and causing over 50% of the product to be lost as waste. Groundwater pollution flows into the rivers Sunzha and Terek on a daily basis. On some locations the rivers are totally devoid of fish. Flora and fauna are destroyed by oil leaks and bombings.

Vietnam war – The Vietnam War started in 1945 and ended in 1975. It is now entitled a proxy war, fought during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union to prevent the necessity for the nations to fight each other directly. North Vietnam fought side by side with the Soviet Union and China, and South Vietnam with the United States, New Zealand and South Korea. It must be noted that the United States only started to be actively involved in the battle after 1963. Between 1965 and 1968 North Vietnam was bombed under Operation Rolling Thunder, in order to force the enemy to negotiate. Bombs destroyed over two million acres of land. North Vietnam forces began to strike back, and the Soviet Union delivered anti-aircraft missiles to North Vietnam. The ground war of US troops against the Viet Cong began. The United States would not retreat from Vietnam until 1973, and during those years extremely environmentally damaging weapons and war tactics were applied.

A massive herbicidal programme was carried out, in order to break the forest cover sheltering Viet Cong guerrillas, and deprive Vietnamese peasants of food. The spraying destroyed 14% of Vietnam’s forests, diminished agricultural yield, and made seeds unfit for replanting. If agricultural yield was not damaged by herbicides, it was often lost because military on the ground set fire to haystacks, and soaked land with aviation fuel en burned it. A total of 15,000 square kilometres of land were eventually destroyed. Livestock was often shot, to deprive peasant of their entire food supply. A total of 13,000 livestock were killed during the war.

The application of 72 million litres of chemical spray resulted in the death of many animals, and caused health effects with humans. One chemical that was applied between 1962 and 1971, called Agent Orange, was particularly harmful. Its main constituent is dioxin, which was present in soil, water and vegetation during and after the war. Dioxin is carcinogenic and teratogenic, and has resulted in spontaneous abortions, chloracne, skin and lung cancers, lower intelligence and emotional problems among children. Children fathered by men exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War often have congenital abnormalities. An estimated half a million children were born with dioxin-related abnormalities. Agent Orange continues to threaten the health of the Vietnamese today.

“Drafted to go to Vietnam
To fight communism in a foreign land.
To preserve democracy is my plight
Which is a God…Given…Right.
Greenery so thick with hidden enemies
Agent Orange is sprayed on the trees.
Covering me from head to toe
Irate my eyes, burns through my clothes.
Returned home when my tour was done
To be told “You have cancer, son”.
Agent Orange is to blame
Government caused your suffering and pain.
Fight for compensation is frustrating and slow
Brass cover-up, not wanting anyone to know.
From cancer many comrades have died
Medical Insurance have been denied.
Compensation I now receive
My health I hope to retrieve.
In Vietnam , I was spared my life
Just to be stabbed with an Agent Orange knife” Yvonne Legge, 2001

Today, agriculture in Vietnam continues to suffer problems from six million unexploded bombs still present. Several organisations are attempting to remove these bombs. Landmines left in Vietnam are not removed, because the Vietnamese government refuses to accept responsibility.

Europe

Kosovo war – The Kosovo war can be divided up in two separate parts: a conflict between Serbia and Kosovo, and a conflict between Kosovo and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). The first conflict originated in 1996 from the statement of Slobodan Milocevic that Kosovo was to remain a part of Serbia, and from the resulting violent response of Albanian residents. When Serbian troops slaughtered 45 Albanians in the village of Racak in Kosovo in 1999, the NATO intervened. NATO launched a 4-month bombing campaign upon Serbia as a reply to the massacre at Racak.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) investigated the environmental impact of the Kosovo war. It was concluded that the war did not result in an environmental disaster affecting the entire Balkan region. Nevertheless, some environmental hot spots were identified, namely Belgrade, Pancevo, Kragujevac, Novi Sad and Bor.

Bombings carried out by the United States resulted in leakages in oil refineries and oil storage depots. Industrial sites containing other industries were also targeted. EDC (1,2-dichloroethane), PCBs en mercury escaped to the environment. Burning of Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) resulted in the formation of dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon monoxide and PAHs, and oil burning released sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and PAHs into the air. Heavy clouds of black smoke forming over burning industrial targets caused black rain to fall on the area around Pancevo. Some damage was done to National Parks in Serbia by bombings, and therefore to biodiversity. EDC, mercury and petroleum products (e.g. PCBs) polluted the Danube River. These are present in the sediments and may resurface in due time. EDC is toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic life. Mercury may be converted into methyl mercury, which is very toxic and bio accumulates. As a measure to prevent the consequences of bombing, a fertilizer plant in Pancevo released liquid ammonia into the Danube River. This caused fish kills up to 30 kilometres downstream.

In 1999 when NATO bombed Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, the resulting environmental damage was enormous. Petrochemical plants in suburbs started leaking all kinds of hazardous chemicals into air, water and soil. Factories producing ammonia and plastics released chlorine, hydrochloric acid, vinyl chloride and other chlorine substances, resulting in local air pollution and health problems. Water sources were polluted by oil leaking from refineries. The Danube River was polluted by oil more severely, but this time hydrochloric acid and mercury compounds also ended up there. These remained in the water for a considering period of time and consequently ended up in neighbouring countries Rumania and Bulgaria.

Clean drinking water supplies and waste treatment plants were damaged by NATO bombings. Many people fled their houses and were moved to refugee camps, where the number of people grew rapidly. A lack of clean drinking water and sanitation problems occurred.

Like in the Gulf War, Depleted Uranium (DU) was applied in the Kosovo War to puncture tanks and other artillery. After the war, the United Kingdom assisted in the removal of DU residues from the environment. Veterans complained of health effects. It was acknowledged by the UK and the US that dusts from DU can be dangerous if inhaled. Inhalation of dust most likely results in chemical poisoning.

World War I: Trench Warfare – In 1914, the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary resulted in the First World War, otherwise known as The Great War, or WWI. It started with Austria-Hungary invading Serbia, where the assassin came from, and Germany invading Belgium. The war was mostly in Europe, between the Allies and the Central Powers.

Allies: France, United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Russia, Poland, Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania, Albania, Greece, Portugal, Finland, United States, Canada, Brazil, Armenia, Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Liberia, China, Japan, Thailand, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama
Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkish Empire, and Bulgaria

The war was fought from trenches, dug from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. In 1918 when the war was over, empires disintegrated into smaller countries, marking the division of Europe today. Over 9 million people had died, most of which perished from influenza after the outbreak of the Spanish Flu (see environmental disasters). The war did not directly cause the influenza outbreak, but it was amplified. Mass movement of troops and close quarters caused the Spanish Flu to spread quickly. Furthermore, stresses of war may have increased the susceptibility of soldiers to the disease.

In terms of environmental impact, World War I was most damaging, because of landscape changes caused by trench warfare. Digging trenches caused trampling of grassland, crushing of plants and animals, and churning of soil. Erosion resulted from forest logging to expand the network of trenches. Soil structures were altered severely, and if the war was never fought, in all likelihood the landscape would have looked very differently today.

Another damaging impact was the application of poison gas. Gases were spread throughout the trenches to kill soldiers of the opposite front. Examples of gases applied during WWI are tear gas (aerosols causing eye irritation), mustard gas (cell toxic gas causing blistering and bleeding), and carbonyl chloride (carcinogenic gas). The gases caused a total of 100,000 deaths, most caused by carbonyl chloride (phosgene). Battlefields were polluted, and most of the gas evaporates into the atmosphere. After the war, unexploded ammunition caused major problems in former battle areas. Environmental legislation prohibits detonation or dumping chemical weapons at sea, therefore the cleanup was and still remains a costly operation. In 1925, most WWI participants signed a treaty banning the application of gaseous chemical weapons. Chemical disarmament plants are planned in France and Belgium.

World War II: – World War II was a worldwide conflict, fought between the Allies (Britain, France and the United States as its core countries) and the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy and Japan as its core countries). It started with the German invasion of Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1939, and ended with the liberation of Western Europe by the allies in 1945.

Estimates for the total casualties of the war vary, but most suggest that some 60 million people died in the war, including about 20 million soldiers and 40 million civilians.

World War II: Hunger winter – In late 1944, the allied troops attempted to liberate Western Europe. As they reached The Netherlands, German resistance caused the liberation to be halted in Arnhem, as allied troops failed to occupy a bridge over the River Rhine. As the Dutch government in exile in Britain called for railway strikes, the Germans responded by putting embargo on food transport to the west. This resulted in what is now known as the Hunger Winter, causing an estimated 20,000-25,000 Dutch to starve to death. A number of factors caused the starvation: a harsh winter, fuel shortages, the ruin of agricultural land by bombings, floods, and the food transport embargo. Most people in the west lived off tulip bulbs and sugar beet. Official food rations were below 1000 cal per person per day. In May 1945 the Hunger Winter ended with the official liberation of the west of The Netherlands.

Source

The there is this.  So what do they do with weapons of mass destruction?  Coming to an Ocean Near YOU! The cost in dollars for the pollution caused by war is staggering. The cost to human life is horrendous. The price of war to the Environment is deadly.  This is of course a Global problem.  What you don’t see can hurt you.  If you don’t know it is only because they don’t want you too. They will never tell you the true unless we as a Global community force them to. This will affect our children for many years to come. War is probably one of the worst polluters on the planet.  Stopping the WAR MACHINE is in everyone’s best interest.

Here you find tons of weapons that were dumped into the oceans among other things.

Depleated Uranium Information

The US Dumps staggering amounts of Chemical weapons in the oceans.

THE DEADLINESS BELOW

The US  still air testing bombs in the US.
US Air Testing Bombs

This to is a form of pollution a very deadly one.

Injuries and Deaths From Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance in Afghanistan, 2002-2006

This is part of the war pollution as well.
Uranium Mining, Grand Canyon now at Risk, Dangers, Pollution, History

Plague of bioweapons accidents afflicts the US

US Nuclear Weapons accidents – 1981 report

Added January 9 2009

Israel killing their own by Using Deadly Weapons of Mass Destuction again Gaza

Added November 18 2009

Doctors report “unprecedented” rise in deformities, cancers in Iraq (Photos)

Added January 9 2010

Cancer and Deformities – The Deadly Legacy of the Invasion of Iraq

NATO bombings: Aftermath takes toll on Serbia, now left with DU Poisoning (Radiation and DU fallout maps included.)

Addiction is also part of war pollution. Because of the NATO and US invasion in Afghanistan, Heroin addiction has grown like wildfire around the world. Millions are now addicted to Heroin.

Afghanistan: Troops Guarding the Poppy Fields

Hush’ over Afghan mission must end

Switzerland’s explosive war effort threatens environmental disaster

Pentagon’s Role in Global Catastrophe: Add Climate Havoc to War Crimes and War Pollution

“Military emissions abroad are exempt from national reporting requirements under U.S. law and the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change.”

Added January 3 2010

Gaza sees more newborns of malformation

Added January 24 2010

Study finds: Iraq littered with high levels of nuclear and dioxin contamination

Added March 1 2010

2.5 million Iraqi women were widowed by Iraq war

Added March 17 2010

Another Gulf War Syndrome? Burn Pits

Added March 18 2010

More Toxic waste for Veterans to deal with.

Erroneous Reports Deny our Veterans Benefits

Added July 22 2013

Najaf: A toxic “health catastrophe” – US weapons blamed for Iraq’s birth defects